Area: 803,943 sq. km. (310,527 sq. mi.); almost twice the size of California.
Cities: Capital--The city of Islamabad (pop. 800,000) and adjacent Rawalpindi (1,406, 214) comprise the national capital area with a combined population of 3.7 million. Other cities--Karachi (11,624,219) (2005 est.), Lahore (6,310,888) (2005 est.), Faisalabad (1,977,246) and Hyderabad (1,151,274).
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Pakistan(i).
Population (July 2008 est.): 167,762,040.
Annual population growth rate (2008 est.): 1.81%.
Ethnic groups: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun, Baloch, Muhajir (i.e., Urdu-speaking immigrants from India and their descendants), Saraiki, and Hazara.
Religions: Muslim 97%; small minorities of Christians, Hindus, and others.
Languages: Urdu (national and official), English, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto, Baloch, Hindko, Brahui, Saraiki (Punjabi variant).
Education: Literacy (2005 est.)--49.9%; male 63%; female 36%.
Health: Infant mortality rate (2008 est.)--66.95/1,000. Life expectancy (2008 est.)--men 63.07 yrs., women 65.24 yrs.
Work force (2004 est.): Agriculture--42%; services--38%; industry--20%.
Real GDP growth rate (2009 est.): 2.7%.
Per capita GDP (year ending 2009, purchasing power parity): $2,600.
Natural resources: Arable land, natural gas, limited oil, substantial hydropower potential, coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone.
Agriculture: Products--wheat, cotton, rice, sugarcane, eggs, fruits, vegetables, milk, beef, mutton.
Industry: Types--textiles & apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, shrimp, fertilizer, and paper products.
Trade (2009 est.): Exports--$17.87 billion: textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, and yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, carpets, rugs, chemicals and manufactures. Major partners (2008)--U.S. 16%, United Arab Emirates 11.7%, Afghanistan 8.6%, U.K. 4.5%, China 4.2%. Imports--$28.31 billion: petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, paper and paper board, transportation equipment, edible oils, pulses, iron and steel, tea.Major partners (2008)--China 14.1%, Saudi Arabia 12%, U.A.E. 11.2%, Kuwait 5.4%, India 4.8%, U.S. 4.7%, Malaysia 4.1%.
Type: Parliamentary democracy.
Independence: August 14, 1947.
Branches: Executive--president (chief of state), prime minister (head of government).Legislative--bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora (100-seat Senate, 342-seat National Assembly). Judicial--Supreme Court, provincial high courts, Federal Islamic (or Shari'a) Court.
Political parties: Pakistan People's Party (PPP), Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N), Awami National Party (ANP), Pakistan Muslim League (PML), Muttahid Majlis-e-Amal (umbrella group) (MMA), and Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM).
Suffrage: Universal at 18.
Political subdivisions: 4 provinces (Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province or NWFP)); also the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (composed of 7 tribal agencies--Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber, Kurram, Orakzai, North Waziristan, and South Waziristan) and the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region (Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas).
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