Geography

Geography
Area: 3.29 million sq. km. (1.27 million sq. mi.); about one-third the size of the U.S. Cities: Capital--New Delhi (pop. 12.8 million, 2001 census). Other major cities--Mumbai, formerly Bombay (16.4 million); Kolkata, formerly Calcutta (13.2 million); Chennai, formerly Madras (6.4 million); Bangalore (5.7 million); Hyderabad (5.5 million); Ahmedabad (5 million); Pune (4 million). Terrain: Varies from Himalayas to flat river valleys and deserts in the west. Climate: Alpine to temperate to subtropical monsoon.

 

 

People and Economy

People
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Indian(s).
Population (2010 est.): 1.17 billion; urban 29%.
Annual population growth rate: 1.376%.
Density: 324/sq. km.
Ethnic groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, others 3%. While the national census does not recognize racial or ethnic groups, it is estimated that there are more than 2,000 ethnic groups in India.
Religions (2001 census): Hindu 80.5%; Muslim 13.4%; Christian 2.3%; Sikh 1.9%; other groups including Buddhist, Jain, Parsi within 1.8%; unspecified 0.1%.
Languages: Hindi, English, and 16 other official languages.
Education: Years compulsory--K-10. Literacy--61%.
Health: Infant mortality rate--49.13/1,000. Life expectancy--66.46 years (2009 est.).
Work force (est.): 467 million. Agriculture--52%; industry and commerce--14%; services and government--34%.

Economy
GDP (FY 2009 est.): $1.095 trillion.
Real growth rate (2009 est.): 6.5%.
Per capita GDP (PPP, FY 2008): $3,100.
Natural resources: Coal, iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, chromite, thorium, limestone, barite, titanium ore, diamonds, crude oil.
Agriculture: 17% of GDP. Products--wheat, rice, coarse grains, oilseeds, sugar, cotton, jute, tea.
Industry: 28.2% of GDP. Products--textiles, jute, processed food, steel, machinery, transport equipment, cement, aluminum, fertilizers, mining, petroleum, chemicals, and computer software.
Services and transportation: 54.8% of GDP.
Trade: Exports (FY 2009 est.)--$164.3 billion; engineering goods, petroleum products, precious stones, cotton apparel and fabrics, gems and jewelry, handicrafts, tea. Services exports ($101.2 billion in 2008-2009) represent more than one-third of India's total exports. Software exports--$35.76 billion. Imports (FY 2009 est.)--$268.4 billion; petroleum, machinery and transport equipment, electronic goods, edible oils, fertilizers, chemicals, gold, textiles, iron and steel. Major trade partners--U.S., China, U.A.E., EU, Russia, Japan.

 

Government

Government
Type: Federal republic.
Independence: August 15, 1947.
Constitution: January 26, 1950.
Branches: Executive--president (chief of state), prime minister (head of government), Council of Ministers (cabinet). Legislative--bicameral parliament (Rajya Sabha or Council of States, and Lok Sabha or House of the People). Judicial--Supreme Court.
Political parties: Indian National Congress (INC), Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), Communist Party of India-Marxist, and numerous regional and small national parties.
Political subdivisions: 28 states,* 7 union territories (including National Capital Territory of Delhi).
Suffrage: Universal over 18.

 

 

India

‘Hockey in Heaven’ (Fri, 19 Apr 2019)
In a remote Himalayan town in northern India, a women’s ice hockey team comes together.
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The Massacre That Led to the End of the British Empire (Sat, 13 Apr 2019)
The events at Jallianwala Bagh, in the Indian city of Amritsar, marked the beginning of the resistance against colonial governance.
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India Still Awaits Apology From Britain for Massacre in Amritsar 100 Years Ago (Sat, 13 Apr 2019)
The British never apologized for the 1919 mass killing of Indians protesting colonial rule in the city of Amritsar, which was ordered by a British general.
>> Read more

Pakistan Premier: ‘No Use’ for Armed Militias Anymore (Tue, 09 Apr 2019)
Imran Khan, praised for his statesmanlike handling of a recent standoff with India, said Pakistan can’t allow the powerful groups to operate any longer.
>> Read more

Bishop in India Charged With Raping Nun Over a 2-Year Period (Tue, 09 Apr 2019)
The charges against the bishop in Kerala, home to most of India’s Catholics, come as Pope Francis has cast a spotlight on clerical sexual abuse of nuns.
>> Read more

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