Location: North Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt, Tunisia, and Algeria, southern border with Chad, Niger, and Sudan.
Area: 1,759,540 sq. km. Cities: Tripoli (capital), Benghazi. Terrain: Mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions. Climate: Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior.
Land use: Arable land--1.03%; permanent crops--0.19%; other--98.78%.
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Libyan(s).
Population (July 2010 est.): 6,461,454.
Annual population growth rate (2010 est.): 2.117%. Birth rate (2010 est.)--24.58 births/1,000 population. Death rate (2010 est.)--3.45 deaths/1,000 population.
Ethnic groups: Berber and Arab 97%; other 3% (includes Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians).
Religion: Sunni Muslim 97%, other 3%.
Languages: Arabic is the primary language. English and Italian are understood in major cities.
Education: Years compulsory--9. Attendance--90%. Literacy (age 15 and over who can read and write)--total population 82.6%; male 92.4%; female 72% (2003 est.).
Health (2010 est.): Infant mortality rate--20.87 deaths/1,000 live births. Life expectancy--total population 77.47 yrs.; male 75.18 yrs.; female 79.88 yrs.
Work force (2010 est.): 1.686 million.
Real GDP (2009 est.): $85.04 billion.
GDP per capita (PPP, 2009 est.): $13,400.
Real GDP growth rate (2009 est.): -0.7%.
Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, gypsum.
Agriculture: Products--wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus, vegetables, peanuts, soybeans; cattle; approximately 75% of Libya's food is imported.
Industry: Types--petroleum, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement.
Trade: Exports (2009 est.)--$34.24 billion: crude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas, chemicals. Major markets (2009 est.)--Italy (37.65%), Germany (10.11%), Spain (7.94%), France (8.44%), Switzerland (5.93%), U.S. (5.27%). Imports (2009 est.)--$22.11 billion: machinery, transport equipment, food, manufactured goods, consumer products, semi-finished goods. Major suppliers (2009)--Italy (18.9%), China (10.54%), Turkey (9.92%), Germany (9.78%), Tunisia (5.25%), South Korea (4.02%).
chief of state: Speaker of the House of Representatives, Aqilah Salah ISSA (since 5 August 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Abdullah al-THINI (since 11 March 2014); Deputy Prime Ministers Abd al-Salam al-BADRI since 4 August 2014); Al-Mahdi Hasan Muftah al-LABAD (since 4 August 2014); Abd al-Rahman al-Tahir al-UHAYRISH (since 4 August 2014)
cabinet: new cabinet approved by the House of Representatives in September 2014
elections: prime minister and Speaker of the House elected by the House of Representatives
election results: NA
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