Geography

Geography
Area: 1,001,450 sq. km. (386,000 sq. mi.); approximately equal to Texas and New Mexico combined. Cities: Capital--Cairo (pop. estimated at 16 million). Other cities--Alexandria (6 million), Aswan, Asyut, Port Said, Suez, Ismailia.Terrain: Desert plateau, except Nile valley and delta. Climate: Dry, hot summers; moderate winters.

 

 

People and Economy

People
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Egyptian(s).
Population (July 2011 est.): 82,079,636.
Annual population growth rate (2011 est.): 1.96%.
Ethnic groups (2006 census): Egyptian 99.6%, other 0.4%.
Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 90%, Coptic Christian 9%, other Christian 1%.
Languages: Arabic (official), English, French.
Education: Years compulsory--ages 6-15. Literacy--total adult 71.4%.
Health: Infant mortality rate (2011 est.)--25.2 deaths/1,000 live births. Life expectancy (2011 est.)--72.66 years.

Economy
GDP (OER) (FY 2010 est.): $218.5 billion.
GDP (PPP) (FY 2010 est.): $497.8 billion.
Annual growth rate (Projected FY 2011 est.): 1.2%.
Per capita GDP (PPP, FY 2010 est.): $6,200.
Natural resources: Petroleum and natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc.
Agriculture: Products--cotton, rice, onions, beans, citrus fruits, wheat, corn, barley, sugar.
Industry: Types--food processing, textiles, tourism, chemicals, petrochemicals, construction, light manufacturing, iron and steel products, aluminum, cement, military equipment.
Trade (FY 2010): Exports--$25.34 billion: petroleum, clothing and textiles, cotton, fruits and vegetables, manufactured goods. Major markets--EU, U.S., Middle East. Imports--$51.54 billion: machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products, livestock, food and beverages, paper and wood products, chemicals. Major suppliers--EU, U.S., China.

 

 

Government

Government
Type: Republic.
Independence: 1922.
Constitution: Egypt is operating under a constitutional decree from March 2011. A new constitution is set to be drafted in 2012.
Branches: Executive—President (The Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces has held presidential authority since February 2011 and is slated to hand over that function to a new president once presidential elections are held, likely by June 30, 2012), Prime Minister, Cabinet. Legislative--People's Assembly (498 elected members and up to 10 presidentially appointed), and Shura (consultative) Council (180 elected members, and 90 presidentially appointed). The two houses of Egypt’s parliament—the People’s Assembly and the Shura Council—were dissolved in February 2011, but will be seated again in 2012 after elections are completed for each house.
Administrative subdivisions: 27 governorates.
Suffrage: Universal at 18.
 

 

 

Egypt

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