Geography

Geography
Area: 780,580 sq. km.
Cities: Capital--Ankara (pop. 4.77 million). Other cities--Istanbul (13.256 million), Izmir (3.949 million), Bursa (2.605 million), Adana (2.085 million), Gaziantep (1.701 million). Terrain: Narrow coastal plain surrounds Anatolia, an inland plateau becomes increasingly rugged as it progresses eastward. Turkey includes one of the more earthquake-prone areas of the world. Climate: Moderate in coastal areas, harsher temperatures inland.

 

 

People and Economy

People
Nationality: Noun--Turk(s). Adjective--Turkish.
Population (December 2010 estimate): 73.7 million.
Annual population growth rate (2010 estimate): 1.312%.
Ethnic groups: Turkish, Kurdish, other.
Religions: Muslim 99% (majority Sunni), Christian, Bahai, and Jewish.
Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic, Armenian, Greek.
Education: Years compulsory--8. Attendance--97.6%. Literacy--87.4%.
Health: Infant mortality rate--23.94/1,000. Life expectancy--72.5 yrs.
Work force (27.43 million): By occupation--services 47.1%; agriculture 26.5%; industry 18.9%; and construction 7.5%.

Economy
GDP (nominal): (2005) $481.5 billion; (2006) $526.4 billion; (2007) $658.8 billion; (2008) $680 billion; (2009) $618 billion; (2010 estimated) $741.9 billion; (2011 forecast) 797.6 billion.
Annual real GDP growth rate: (2005) 8.4%; (2006) 6.9%; (2007) 4.5%; (2008) 1.1%; (2009) -4.7%; (2010 estimated) 8.2%; (2011 forecast) 4.6%.
GDP (nominal) per capita: (2005) $7,108; (2006) $7,766; (2007) $9,422; (2008) $10,484; (2009) $8,711; (2010 estimate) $10,398; (2011 forecast) $11,054.
Annual inflation rate/CPI: (2005) 7.7%; (2006) 9.7%; (2007) 8.4%; (2008) 10.1%; (2009) 6.5%; (2010) 6.4%; (2011 forecast) 7.0%.
Natural resources: Coal, chromium, mercury, copper, boron, oil, gold.
Agriculture (9.3% of GDP): Major products (CIA World Factbook)--tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, hazelnuts, pulse, citrus; livestock. Provides about 26.5% of jobs (2011) and 3.5% of exports (Jan.-July 2011).
Industry (25.6% of GDP): Major growth sector, types--automotive, electronics, food processing, textiles, basic metals, chemicals, and petrochemicals. Provides about 18.9% of jobs and 93.8% of exports.
Trade: Exports (merchandise)--(2005) $73.5 billion; (2006) $85.5 billion; (2007) $107.2 billion; (2008) $132 billion; (2009) $102.1 billion; (2010) $113.9 billion. Export types(Turkish Statistical Institute, 2011)--textiles and apparel, industrial machinery, iron and steel, electronics, petroleum products, and motor vehicles. Imports (merchandise)--(2005) $116.8 billion; (2006) $139.6 billion; (2007) $170.1 billion; (2008) $201.8 billion; (2009) $140.4 billion; (2010) $185.9 billion. Import types--chemicals, petroleum, machinery, motor vehicles, electronics, iron, steel, plastics, precious metals. Major partners--Germany, U.S., Italy, France, Russia, Japan, China, Iran, Iraq, U.K.

Government

Government
Type: Republic.
Independence: October 29, 1923.
Constitution: November 7, 1982. Amended in 1987, 1995, 2001, 2007, and 2010.
Branches: Executive--president (chief of state), prime minister (head of government), Council of Ministers (cabinet--appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister). Legislative--Grand National Assembly (550 members) chosen by national elections at least every 4 years. Judicial--Constitutional Court, Court of Cassation, Council of State, and other courts.
Political parties with representatives in Parliament: Justice and Development Party (AKP) (327 seats), Republican People's Party (CHP) (135 seats), Nationalist Action Party (MHP) (52 seats), Peace and Democracy Party (BDP) (29 seats), and seven independents.
Suffrage: Universal, 18 and older.
National holiday: Republic Day, October 28-29.

Turkey

Defying U.S. Sanctions, China and Others Take Oil From 12 Iranian Tankers (Sat, 03 Aug 2019)
The U.S. has been unable to halt Iranian oil exports.
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If These Walls Could Talk: A War Correspondent Revisits a Hotel of Ghosts (Wed, 31 Jul 2019)
The Liwan — where journalists such as Anthony Shadid often stayed — once hummed with Syria’s hopes and fears.
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‘Her Eyes Were Full of Fear.’ Turkey Repatriates Children of ISIS Followers. (Sat, 27 Jul 2019)
The country is allowing some of the wives and children of the terror group’s loyalists to return home from Iraq.
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‘The Era of People Like You Is Over’: How Turkey Purged Its Intellectuals (Wed, 24 Jul 2019)
For more than a century, one school of political science dominated the education of Turkey’s governing class — until the Erdogan regime set about destroying it.
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Associate of Michael Flynn Is Found Guilty of Secretly Lobbying for Turkey (Tue, 23 Jul 2019)
The ruling could reverberate against Mr. Flynn, President Trump’s first national security adviser, who had agreed to testify in the case before backing out.
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