Geography

Geography
Area: 780,580 sq. km.
Cities: Capital--Ankara (pop. 4.77 million). Other cities--Istanbul (13.256 million), Izmir (3.949 million), Bursa (2.605 million), Adana (2.085 million), Gaziantep (1.701 million). Terrain: Narrow coastal plain surrounds Anatolia, an inland plateau becomes increasingly rugged as it progresses eastward. Turkey includes one of the more earthquake-prone areas of the world. Climate: Moderate in coastal areas, harsher temperatures inland.

 

 

People and Economy

People
Nationality: Noun--Turk(s). Adjective--Turkish.
Population (December 2010 estimate): 73.7 million.
Annual population growth rate (2010 estimate): 1.312%.
Ethnic groups: Turkish, Kurdish, other.
Religions: Muslim 99% (majority Sunni), Christian, Bahai, and Jewish.
Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic, Armenian, Greek.
Education: Years compulsory--8. Attendance--97.6%. Literacy--87.4%.
Health: Infant mortality rate--23.94/1,000. Life expectancy--72.5 yrs.
Work force (27.43 million): By occupation--services 47.1%; agriculture 26.5%; industry 18.9%; and construction 7.5%.

Economy
GDP (nominal): (2005) $481.5 billion; (2006) $526.4 billion; (2007) $658.8 billion; (2008) $680 billion; (2009) $618 billion; (2010 estimated) $741.9 billion; (2011 forecast) 797.6 billion.
Annual real GDP growth rate: (2005) 8.4%; (2006) 6.9%; (2007) 4.5%; (2008) 1.1%; (2009) -4.7%; (2010 estimated) 8.2%; (2011 forecast) 4.6%.
GDP (nominal) per capita: (2005) $7,108; (2006) $7,766; (2007) $9,422; (2008) $10,484; (2009) $8,711; (2010 estimate) $10,398; (2011 forecast) $11,054.
Annual inflation rate/CPI: (2005) 7.7%; (2006) 9.7%; (2007) 8.4%; (2008) 10.1%; (2009) 6.5%; (2010) 6.4%; (2011 forecast) 7.0%.
Natural resources: Coal, chromium, mercury, copper, boron, oil, gold.
Agriculture (9.3% of GDP): Major products (CIA World Factbook)--tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, hazelnuts, pulse, citrus; livestock. Provides about 26.5% of jobs (2011) and 3.5% of exports (Jan.-July 2011).
Industry (25.6% of GDP): Major growth sector, types--automotive, electronics, food processing, textiles, basic metals, chemicals, and petrochemicals. Provides about 18.9% of jobs and 93.8% of exports.
Trade: Exports (merchandise)--(2005) $73.5 billion; (2006) $85.5 billion; (2007) $107.2 billion; (2008) $132 billion; (2009) $102.1 billion; (2010) $113.9 billion. Export types(Turkish Statistical Institute, 2011)--textiles and apparel, industrial machinery, iron and steel, electronics, petroleum products, and motor vehicles. Imports (merchandise)--(2005) $116.8 billion; (2006) $139.6 billion; (2007) $170.1 billion; (2008) $201.8 billion; (2009) $140.4 billion; (2010) $185.9 billion. Import types--chemicals, petroleum, machinery, motor vehicles, electronics, iron, steel, plastics, precious metals. Major partners--Germany, U.S., Italy, France, Russia, Japan, China, Iran, Iraq, U.K.

Government

Government
Type: Republic.
Independence: October 29, 1923.
Constitution: November 7, 1982. Amended in 1987, 1995, 2001, 2007, and 2010.
Branches: Executive--president (chief of state), prime minister (head of government), Council of Ministers (cabinet--appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister). Legislative--Grand National Assembly (550 members) chosen by national elections at least every 4 years. Judicial--Constitutional Court, Court of Cassation, Council of State, and other courts.
Political parties with representatives in Parliament: Justice and Development Party (AKP) (327 seats), Republican People's Party (CHP) (135 seats), Nationalist Action Party (MHP) (52 seats), Peace and Democracy Party (BDP) (29 seats), and seven independents.
Suffrage: Universal, 18 and older.
National holiday: Republic Day, October 28-29.

Turkey

An Istanbul ‘Timekeeper’ Who Believes in Taking It Slow (Wed, 20 Feb 2019)
Sevan Bicakci spent more than nine years creating the 85 pieces in his first watch collection.
>> Read more

Turkey’s Mass Trials Deepen Wounds Left by Attempted Coup (Tue, 12 Feb 2019)
While the sweeping verdicts are welcomed by the government and its supporters, critics say they are deeply flawed and represent collective punishment.
>> Read more

Clean, On Time and Rat-Free: 9 International Transit Systems With Lessons for New York (Mon, 11 Feb 2019)
From Tokyo to Zurich, readers told us how New York’s subway compares with the public transportation in their cities (spoiler alert: not well).
>> Read more

Turkey Urges China to End Mass Detention of Muslims (Sun, 10 Feb 2019)
The rare rebuke of the Chinese crackdown by a majority-Muslim country came after reports that a prominent Uighur folk poet had died in detention.
>> Read more

Death Toll Rises to 15 in Istanbul Building Collapse (Fri, 08 Feb 2019)
Turkish news reports raised the possibility that columns had been removed from the building, weakening it — once a common practice.
>> Read more

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