Geography

Geography
Area: 780,580 sq. km.
Cities: Capital--Ankara (pop. 4.77 million). Other cities--Istanbul (13.256 million), Izmir (3.949 million), Bursa (2.605 million), Adana (2.085 million), Gaziantep (1.701 million). Terrain: Narrow coastal plain surrounds Anatolia, an inland plateau becomes increasingly rugged as it progresses eastward. Turkey includes one of the more earthquake-prone areas of the world. Climate: Moderate in coastal areas, harsher temperatures inland.

 

 

People and Economy

People
Nationality: Noun--Turk(s). Adjective--Turkish.
Population (December 2010 estimate): 73.7 million.
Annual population growth rate (2010 estimate): 1.312%.
Ethnic groups: Turkish, Kurdish, other.
Religions: Muslim 99% (majority Sunni), Christian, Bahai, and Jewish.
Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic, Armenian, Greek.
Education: Years compulsory--8. Attendance--97.6%. Literacy--87.4%.
Health: Infant mortality rate--23.94/1,000. Life expectancy--72.5 yrs.
Work force (27.43 million): By occupation--services 47.1%; agriculture 26.5%; industry 18.9%; and construction 7.5%.

Economy
GDP (nominal): (2005) $481.5 billion; (2006) $526.4 billion; (2007) $658.8 billion; (2008) $680 billion; (2009) $618 billion; (2010 estimated) $741.9 billion; (2011 forecast) 797.6 billion.
Annual real GDP growth rate: (2005) 8.4%; (2006) 6.9%; (2007) 4.5%; (2008) 1.1%; (2009) -4.7%; (2010 estimated) 8.2%; (2011 forecast) 4.6%.
GDP (nominal) per capita: (2005) $7,108; (2006) $7,766; (2007) $9,422; (2008) $10,484; (2009) $8,711; (2010 estimate) $10,398; (2011 forecast) $11,054.
Annual inflation rate/CPI: (2005) 7.7%; (2006) 9.7%; (2007) 8.4%; (2008) 10.1%; (2009) 6.5%; (2010) 6.4%; (2011 forecast) 7.0%.
Natural resources: Coal, chromium, mercury, copper, boron, oil, gold.
Agriculture (9.3% of GDP): Major products (CIA World Factbook)--tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, hazelnuts, pulse, citrus; livestock. Provides about 26.5% of jobs (2011) and 3.5% of exports (Jan.-July 2011).
Industry (25.6% of GDP): Major growth sector, types--automotive, electronics, food processing, textiles, basic metals, chemicals, and petrochemicals. Provides about 18.9% of jobs and 93.8% of exports.
Trade: Exports (merchandise)--(2005) $73.5 billion; (2006) $85.5 billion; (2007) $107.2 billion; (2008) $132 billion; (2009) $102.1 billion; (2010) $113.9 billion. Export types(Turkish Statistical Institute, 2011)--textiles and apparel, industrial machinery, iron and steel, electronics, petroleum products, and motor vehicles. Imports (merchandise)--(2005) $116.8 billion; (2006) $139.6 billion; (2007) $170.1 billion; (2008) $201.8 billion; (2009) $140.4 billion; (2010) $185.9 billion. Import types--chemicals, petroleum, machinery, motor vehicles, electronics, iron, steel, plastics, precious metals. Major partners--Germany, U.S., Italy, France, Russia, Japan, China, Iran, Iraq, U.K.

Government

Government
Type: Republic.
Independence: October 29, 1923.
Constitution: November 7, 1982. Amended in 1987, 1995, 2001, 2007, and 2010.
Branches: Executive--president (chief of state), prime minister (head of government), Council of Ministers (cabinet--appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister). Legislative--Grand National Assembly (550 members) chosen by national elections at least every 4 years. Judicial--Constitutional Court, Court of Cassation, Council of State, and other courts.
Political parties with representatives in Parliament: Justice and Development Party (AKP) (327 seats), Republican People's Party (CHP) (135 seats), Nationalist Action Party (MHP) (52 seats), Peace and Democracy Party (BDP) (29 seats), and seven independents.
Suffrage: Universal, 18 and older.
National holiday: Republic Day, October 28-29.

Turkey

Turkish Aggression Is NATO’s ‘Elephant in the Room’ (Mon, 03 Aug 2020)
Despite being a NATO member, Turkey has bought Russian air defense. And a recent push into Libya and its energy ambitions nearly led to armed conflicts with France and Greece.
>> Read more

Turkey Passes Law Extending Sweeping Powers Over Social Media (Wed, 29 Jul 2020)
The legislation extends control over platforms like Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. Critics worry it will be used to stifle dissent and criticism of the government.
>> Read more

Travel the World Through These Dance Tutorials (Sat, 25 Jul 2020)
Here are eight cultural dances that you can learn at home through online tutorials or mobile dance apps.
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Hagia Sophia Draws Huge Crowds for Friday Prayer (Fri, 24 Jul 2020)
President Recep Tayyip Erdogan of Turkey joined crowds of Muslim worshipers at the Hagia Sophia for its first Friday Prayer since being restored to a working mosque.
>> Read more

Erdogan Fulfills Cherished Goal, Opening Hagia Sophia to Prayers (Fri, 24 Jul 2020)
The Muslim faithful celebrated the decision by President Recep Tayyip Erdogan of Turkey, even as it generated dismay among Christians and architectural conservators.
>> Read more

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