Area: About 309,500 sq. km. (approximately the size of the State of New Mexico). It is bordered on the north by the United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.), on the northwest by Saudi Arabia, and on the southwest by the Republic of Yemen. The Omani coastline stretches 3,165 km. Cities: Capital--Muscat. Other cities--Salalah, Nizwa, Sohar, Sur. Terrain: Mountains, plains, and arid plateau. Climate: Hot and humid along the coast; hot and dry in the interior; summer monsoon in the far south.



People and Economy

Nationality: Noun--Oman. Adjective--Omani(s).
Population (2010 census): 2.69 million.
Annual population growth rate (2009 est.): 2.0%.
Ethnic groups: Arab, Baluchi, East African (Zanzibari), South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi).
Religions: Ibadhi; Sunni Muslim, Shia Muslim, Hindu, Christian.
Languages: Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Swahili, Hindi and Indian dialects.
Education: Literacy--approx. 81% (total population).
Health (2009 est.): Infant mortality rate--17 deaths/1,000 live births. Life expectancy--73.8 years.
Work force: 920,000 total; Agriculture and fishing--approx. 50%.

GDP (2011 est.): 6.2 billion Omani rial ($16 billion).
Per capita GDP (2010): $20,855 (including 815,000 resident expatriate workers)
Real GDP growth rate (2012 est.): 4.8%.
Natural resources: Oil, natural gas, copper, marble, limestone, gypsum, chromium.
Agriculture and fisheries: (1% of GDP in 2010). Products--dates, bananas, mangoes, alfalfa, other fruits and vegetables. Fisheries--kingfish, tuna, cobia, shrimp, lobster, abalone.
Industry: Types--crude petroleum (not including gas liquids) about 865,000 barrels per day; construction (5% of GDP in 2010), petroleum refinery, copper mines and smelter, cement and various light industries.
Trade (May 2011): Oil and gas exports--$12.6 billion (47% of GDP in 2010). Major oilmarkets--China (41%), Japan (14%), India (14%), Thailand (11%), Korea (6%), Taiwan (5%). Non-oil exports--$3.12 billion: live animals (6%), mineral products (28%), chemical products (23%), plastic and rubber products (13%), base metals (14%).
Major markets (non-oil)--U.A.E. (16%), China (12%), India (11%), Saudi Arabia (7%), Taiwan (6%). Imports--$9.6 billion: electrical machinery (21%), transportation equipment (26%), prepared foodstuffs (4%), mineral products (8%), chemical products (8%), base metals (11%). Major suppliers--U.A.E. (28%), Japan (12%), United States (6%), Saudi Arabia (6%), India (5%)




Type: Monarchy.
Constitution: None. On November 6, 1996, the Sultan issued a royal decree promulgating the Basic Statute, which clarifies the royal succession, provides for a prime minister, bars ministers from holding interests in companies doing business with the government, establishes a bicameral parliament, and guarantees basic rights and responsibilities for Omani citizens.
Branches: Executive--Sultan. Legislative--bicameral Majlis Oman (appointed State Council and elected Consultative Council). Judicial--Civil courts are divided into four departments: criminal courts handle cases under the penal code; family courts oversee personal status issues using Oman’s Personal Status Law, which is based on Shari’a (Islamic law); commercial courts adjudicate business and commercial matters; labor courts oversee labor and employment cases.
Political parties: None.
Suffrage: Universal adult.
Administrative subdivisions: Eleven governorates--Muscat, Dhofar, Musandam, Al-Buraimi, Al Batinah North, Al Batinah South, Al Dhahirah, Al Dakhliya, Al Shariqiya North, Al Shariqiya South, Al Wusta. There are 63 districts (wilayats).




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